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By A. Bonnick, D. Newbold

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33 A four-cylinder, five main bearing crankshaft made from a lighter material than cast iron therefore saving weight. Two of the most common types of liners used are: . a dry-type liner which forms a lining in the cylinder and is a press fit in the block; . a wet liner, which forms the cylinder and is in direct contact with the coolant; with seals between the liner and the cylinder block at the top and bottom they are held in position by the cylinder head. Engines and lubrication Crankshaft The crankshaft (Fig.

Wide distribution of the fuel during the heating phase means that the burning process (combustion) starts at many different points in the chamber. In direct injection systems, once ignition has started, most of the burning will tend to concentrate in zones fairly close to the injector. These zones must be fed with air in order to sweep away the burnt gases and supply the oxygen necessary for complete combustion. Any lack of oxygen in the combustion region will lead to black smoke in the exhaust.

The ‘rocking method’ is a quicker way of setting the valve clearances although it is not quite so accurate. e. the exhaust valve is just closing and the inlet valve is just opening. Numbers one and four pistons will now be at TDC, the valves on number one cylinder will be fully closed and can therefore be adjusted. To adjust the valve on number four cylinder rotate the engine one full turn (360 ). The same method can be used to set numbers two and three cylinders. The ‘rule of nine’ can also be used.

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A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maint. by A. Bonnick, D. Newbold

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