By Sascha W. Felix
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The presence of these antinutritional factors limit the use of vegetable feedstuffs in aquaculture. In practice, soybean remains the main ingredient from vegetable origin used in formulations because most of its ANF are heat labile and the processing of soybean is rather well controlled. Toxicity of Additives Certain feed additives are toxic when used at high concentrations. Errors in formulation or in ingredient proportionining can cause severe mortality in shrimp farming. Many commercial feed companies might have probably experienced these unfortunate situations.
Iv) pH The pH plays a very important role in shrimp aquaculture management and a low water pH can affect the shrimp directly. Even though P. 0 in the presence of inorganic carbon, growth would be reduced to 60 percent. However, a drop in pH that is associated with a loss or rapid reduction of inorganic carbon, may be lethal. 4, and less than 10 to 12 mg/l of inorganic carbon, penaeid shrimps exhibit significant reduction in growth and lower survival. 0, heavy mortalities occurred (Wickens, 1976).
P. japonicus,P. occidentalis, P. schmitti, P. semisulcatus and P. setiferus. 45 mg NH3–N/l reduced growth by 50 percent of that of controls. 10 mg NH3–N/l. 10 mg unionized ammonia (NH3-N) per litre at selected temperatures, salinity and pH. 1 mg/l unionized ammonia nitrogen in water at a constant pressure of 1 atmosphere at different values of temperature, salinity and pH (Wickins, 1976) are as follows: From the table it can be seen that pH has a major effect, with the percentage of toxic unionized ammonia being much greater at high pH than at low pH.
Advances in shrimp aquaculture management by Sascha W. Felix