By A. Schuster, J. Nicholson
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Problems 33 Summary: While lens‐design aberrations create WFE, there are many other sources of WFE, including fabrication errors, initial alignment errors, and environmental factors such as external vibrations, temperature changes, temperature gradients, and so on. The aberrations may be reduced by the lens designer; the fabrication, alignment, and other wavefront errors are the focus of the optomechanical design and are reviewed in the remainder of this book under the categories of fabrication (Chapter.
Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, McGraw‐Hill (2008). 13 Aberrations are a result of wavefront error. Adapted from Warren J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, McGraw‐Hill (2008). While first‐order imaging depends on how an ideal lens modifies wavefronts, aberrations are a result of WFE. 13 shows that spherical aberration can also be viewed as a deviation of the wavefront from the ideal wavefront centered on the paraxial focus (the reference sphere). This optical path difference (OPD)—or wavefront error—brings the outer portion of the wavefront to a focus slightly closer to the lens than the inner (or paraxial) portion.
That is, a lens or mirror may have a surface error that is randomly distributed over the component area; alternatively, the surface error may be localized over a small area. 7—the effects on image quality can be much smaller than if the WFE is random. The use of an area‐averaged metric— that is, RMS SFE—thus provides a better measure of component fabrication quality. 1 illustrates the importance of the RMS concept. 2 has a large surface error; the error is approximately 5λ PV over the area of the grease (1 mm2).
An Introduction to the Theory of Optics by A. Schuster, J. Nicholson